Gili Eco Trust
There are over 3,500 marine species living in the reefs and seas of Indonesia. In comparison to the Great Barrier Reef (1,500 species) and Red Sea (600 species), Indonesian’s coral reefs are the global center of marine biodiversity. With 17,502 islands and 85,700 sq/km of coral reef (14% of the whole world coral reef), Indonesia holds the world’s richest variety of coral with 450 species. It is one of the Indonesia’s greatest assets.
Situation on Gili Trawangan
Gili Trawangan is a beautiful Indonesian island and a popular destination for tourists and divers. Unfortunately a proportion of the fringing coral reef has been damaged by global warming, natural weather action (storms).In Gili Trawangan, the Gili Eco Trust is a non profit organization concerned with cleaning the island and protecting the coral reefs from destructive fishing methods. Each diver in Gili trawangan has to pay a reef tax of Rp40,000. This money is collected and reinvested to collect and manage the rubbish problem on the island, to pay the fisherman a salary in exchange of no more destructive fishing practices, and control the application of the rules.
Since 2004 there are now 20 biorock structures already installed in the Gili islands, on Trawangan and Meno. They can all be seen be either snorkeling or diving, they start in front of Villa Ombak Hotel all the way along the beach in front of all the dive centres to the main beach area known as Goodheart. And a variety of shapes and large areas in front of Malias Child on Gili Meno. These projects have involved many local Indonesians and westerners from divemasters to biologists.
A new artificial reef extends the possibilities for the Gili islands and the local population to learn how to protect their environment and see the benefits of their actions. The new projects are designed to involve more people and to spread the information resulting from the structures and its benefits.
Gili islands January 2008 Biorock Update [click here]
Gili islands August 2008 Biorock update [click here]
Gili islands December 2008 Biorock update [click here]
Gili islands November 2012 Biorock update [click here]
The methods pioneered in Pemuteran have proven successful where other strategies have shown little result in restoring reefs and fisheries. This project has demonstrated that restoring coral growth can bring fish back to the area. Local fishermen see schools of many kinds of fish attracted to the coral nurseries, as they pass over them en route to their barren fishing grounds miles off shore.
Biorock projects inthe Gilis is a new initiative for the local community, helping them to protect their coral reef and understand the importance of maintaining a healthy, vibrant marine ecosystem for future generations.
- Build additional Biorock structures to grow other artificial reefs in all Gili islands.
- Create a new coral reef on Gili Trawangan involving the local population.
- Teach the local population how to protect their environment and show them the benefits of reef protection and regeneration for them and their children.
- The structure is also designed as a teaching material for scuba diving. Many PADI specialties can be taught using the structure including underwater photography, fish identification, and underwater naturalist.
- Involve dive instructors and divemasters from the all Gili islands. Teach students to respect marine life with a visit to the structure during a scuba diving course or a fun dive.
- Make the following studies: growth rate; survival rate; document the different species of fish settled on the structure; visiting fish numbers and the effect of the accretion on the different species of coral
- Build a Web Site describing the project and following the regeneration of the reef.
- Get tourists actively involved through contribution to the building, financing and ongoing growth of the structure.
- Organize more Biorock workshops in Gili Trawangan with Thomas Goreau, Wolf Hilbertz, Indonesian universities, western students, dive instructors and others.
- The hope and plan is to extend this process to the entire region. To expand the reef restoration by building more structures and extending the existing structures deeper and wider.
The project is to build a biorock structure in Gili Trawangan to create a coral reef and generate marine life around it. Two electrodes supplied with low voltage direct current are submerged in sea water. Electrolytic reactions at the cathode cause minerals naturally present in sea water to build up. At the same time a wide range of organisms on or near the growing substrate are affected by electrochemically-changed conditions, shifting their growth rate.
Stray or loose living corals are carefully collected from nearby damaged reefs and transplanted onto the structures. They are attached with wires or wedged between steel bars. These coral bits are quickly cemented into place by growing minerals forming over the structures surface. The reefs are electrically charged to grow.
The reef restoration project is only one phase of a bigger overall plan. The timescale of the project is many years as coral grows slowly and releases spores only once a year to repopulate other areas. However the technology ensures that the coral structures inside the project will stay healthy even in times of stress. One of the many benefits of the reef restoration project is that reef fish, schooling fish and many other marine life forms gravitate to the area. It is a fish nursery as well as a coral nursery and therefore will become an excellent snorkeling and dive site.
The location of the new artificial reefs in Gili Trawangan is all along the beach, for about 800 metres in water 6-14 meters deep. The power supply comes from the dive centers and businesses directly opposite each structure. The structures are made of steel bars 10 meters in length and 8 millimeters diameter. There is a tunnel 1,5 meters high, 10 meters long and 2,5 meters wide, and even the shape of a small plane on Gili Meno. The coral is tied up at the intersection of the bars, mostly on the top of the structures. Some steel mesh (chicken wire) is attached to some parts of the structure to provide fish habitats.
The first structures will be the beginning of the project and lots of smaller structures will be connected to the first one.
Biorock techniques and development
Damaged coral reefs take years to recover naturally. Despite conservation efforts now to address these problems, natural regeneration under existing efforts is inadequate, in part due to increasing global stresses.
In Krang Lestari Pemuteran (Protected Coral) project, hotels, dive shops, village fisher folk, scientists and conservationists did unite to, protect and restore coral reefs, increase fishery resources and develop sustainable economy for local fisherman communities, which are benefiting both tourism and local economy.
A compelling element of this pilot project is the interactive involvement of traditional community, government and private enterprise. Its goal is to enhance tourism through conservation and protection, while contributing to the local economic benefit.
With this effort, a radical new approach to reef restoration was undertaken: Mineral Accretion literally grows reefs. This unique reef system is the brain child of scientists Professor Wolf Hilbertz and Doctor Thomas Goreau.
Artificial reef construction by means of mineral accretion, also known as third generation artificial reef systems, is a novel technology which uses electricity to grow limestone rock on artificial frames and increase growth rates of corals and other reef organisms. These resulting coral and fish nurseries have reestablished a devastated marine ecosystem in a very short time.
Two NGOs (Yayasan Karang Lestari Pemuteran and Global Reef Alliance) are responsible for this project. They are dynamic and complementary in their synergy.
The award-winning community-based coral restoration project in Pemuteran Bali is becoming one of the world’s major educational and experimental facilities to further coral reef regeneration, coastal protection and socialization of sustainable management of coral reefs ecosystems for conservation and tourism development.
Not many people Know that the three Gili Islands of Gili Trawangan, Gili Meno and Gili Air are actually located in a protected marine park called Gili Matra Marine Natural recreation Park.
The Gili Matra Marine Natural Recreation Park was established on 16 February 1993 and has a total area of approximately 3000 hectares, consisting of the 3 islands, Gili Meno (± 150 hectares), Gili Air (± 175 hectares), Gili Trawangan (± 340 hectares), and ± 2,289 hectares of marine area.
In 1993, the area surrounding the 3 Gilis was designated a recreation park under the Minister of Forestry Decree Number 85/Kpts-II/1993, dated 16 February 1993, based on the proposal of the Governor of West Nusa Tenggara Province.
The Management Objectives are:
The management of Gili Matra is based on Act Number 5 of 1990 concerning Conservation of Living Resources and their Ecosystems. Therefore, the aim of the management of this Park is to protect the Park and its ecosystems, and also to utilize it in a sustainable way of the parks natural resources. The resources should be used for research, science, education, recreation and tourism purposes.The main objectives of the management of Gili Matra are outlined as follows:
The main objectives of the management of Gili Matra are firstly to promote sustainable use of the Park’s resources, and secondly To encourage and integrate local participation in park management to protect biological values of the park and to eliminate further disturbances or alteration of it’s natural habitats, to protect endangered and threatened wild animal species and their habitats, to maintain the locations designated for recreation and tourism development, to maintain sustainable use of commercial fish habitats, and to achieve compatible use and careful management of species’ and their habitats.
The Natural Resources Conservation Office is the Management Authority.
Their responsibility is to manage the 3 Gili islands and the Natural Resources Conservation Office of West Nusa Tenggara (Balai Konservasi Sumber Daya Alam, Nusa Tenggara Barat) under the Directorate of the Forest Protection And Nature Conservation (DG of PHPA), Ministry of Forestry, Indonesia.
The Natural Resources Conservation Office Problems:
The actual problems in the Gili Matra Marine Natural Recreation Park were those faced directly such as fishing using bomb blasting and poisoning.
Anticipating the problems, sources of problems are first identified and then addressed. To do so, coordination among related institutions and parties is required since the problems cannot be managed by only a single agency such as West Nusa Tenggara Natural Resources Conservation Office.
Based on continual identification, the problem sources can be grouped into management intensity, social-economic conditions of the local communities, and the awareness of communities. However, the Park’s management ability is still limited. This is due to a lack of facilities, land a ack of expertise in marine ecology, limited human resources both in quality and quantity, and lack of technical guidance.
Many related institutions and parties are not really aware of the designation of Gili as a Marine Park. Therefore, some conflicts between biodiversity conservation efforts and other development activities still exist. Thus, the benefits from Park management are not easily observed.
We are pleased to inform that fish blasting and poisoning has been stopped since the year 2000, and many reefs have recovered substantially as has the fish population.
Other problems include muro-ami fishing. This method is very destructive to coral reefs, therefore West Nusa Tenggara Natural Resources Conservation Office in collaboration with Taskforce Gili Patrols, must patrol and inform users not to engage in this sort of fishing, especially in the conservation area.
In July 2002, Taskforce Gili Patrols and West Nusa Tenggara Natural Resources Conservation Office caught a group of muro-ami users. This case was solved using awiq-awiq, a law based on local customs. Fortunately, blasting and poisoning of fish and other marine species has not been observed and stopped since August 2000.
Transplanting corals around Gili Matra Marine Natural Recreation Park and successful Management.
1. Establishing a designated management plan for the years 1998 – 2008.
2. Zoning for the protection of the park, and watching exploited zones.
3. Education of the Youth Conservation Group. This group then forms a Youth Front Foundation of Taskforce Gili Patrols.
4. Joint protection operation between West Nusa Tenggara Natural Resources Conservation Office, Police, and Community (Taskforce Gili Patrols) in 2000 has succeeded to catch fish bombers that were sentenced to 9 months in jail.
5. Implementation of the agreement with coastal community in Northern West Lombok, which was signed by the Head Of the Village and the Head of the Tanjung District, Gangga District, and the Head of the Pemenang District for:
* The establishment of the Foundation of Fisherman Community Organization in Northern West Lombok to help the implementation of coastal security activities by Taskforce Gili Patrols.
* Building and implementing the traditional rules, “awiq-awiq,” which was implemented since 19 March 2000.
(The maximum penalty is a fine of Rp. 10,000,000. There have been 6 cases recorded: bombing, 2 poisoning, and use of muro-ami. The sum of the collected fines was Rp. 25,500,000.)
* The sea and coastal security activities is done by the community, funded by NGO’s, with awiq-awiq penalties, including activities such as:
+ Conducting daily patrols.
+ Installing Park border signs.
+ Supporting infrastructure for coastal security activities.
+ Helping on community awareness and sustainable use of marine resources
+ When patrols arrest someone, the system of penalties is as follows: Firstly, awiq-awiq system. The sanction will be a penalty or a property seizure and signing a statement not to repeat the offence. Secondly, processing by law to conduct a further investigation by the police, and then bringing the case to court.
6. Installing mooring buoys in Gili Meno, Gili Air, and Gili Trawangan, 10 units each.(This is now many many more)
7. Sea turtle conservation programs.
8. Coral reefs inventory was conducted by the West Nusa Tenggara Natural Resources Conservation Office, in cooperation with Mataram University and NGO’s.
9. Making audiovisual documentation in Gili, in cooperation with Diponegoro University, Mataram University, and West Nusa Tenggara Natural Resources
10. Establish environmental conservation groups in the Marine Park to clean organic and inorganic pollutants.
11. The development of buffer zone areas and coastal community building was done through coral rehabilitation using a transplantation system, conducted in cooperation with Taskforce Gili Patrols and West Nusa Tenggara Natural Resources Conservation Office.
Current Legislation and Further Needs:
There are many laws in Indonesia pertaining to conservation. Listed below are some that could apply to the management of the Gili Islands.
1. Act Number 9 of 1985 concerning Fisheries.
2. Act Number 5 of 1990 concerning Conservation of Living Resources and Their Ecosystems.
3. Government Regulation Number 68 of 1998 concerning Sanctuary Reserve and Nature Conservation Area.
4. Sea and coastal management strategic plan 1998, Provincial Development Board (Bappeda) of West Nusa Tenggara Province.
5. Policy and strategy on coral reefs management in Indonesia, 2000.
6. Decree Head of Provincial Development Board of West Nusa Tenggara Province Number 5 of 1998 concerning Provincial Task Force Building in the Implementation of Coral Reefs Management and Rehabilitation Activity in West Nusa Tenggara Province.
7. Governor instruction Number 2 of 1998 concerning Prohibition of Coral Reefs Mining.
8. Governor Decree Number 141 of 2000 concerning Local Communication Forum Building in West Nusa Tenggara.
9. The “Awiq-Awiq” (traditional rules) of fisherman community of Northern West Lombok in March 2000, is a coastal community agreement in Northern West Lombok on sanction toward people who destroy marine resources, signed by Village and Sub District Officers.
The future efforts to increase the quality of marine resources in the context of community welfare through tourism are:
1. Capacity building by training and education.
2. Supply of supporting infrastructure for officers in Gili.
3. Publicising the zoning scheme in the Gilis in order to conserve marine resources.
4. Strengthen coordination amongst stakeholders.
5. Technical and non-technical cooperation with domestic and international NGO’s.
In order to implement those efforts, it is necessary to obtain:
1. More support from local government, other agencies, and local community.
2. Support from central government to strengthen relationships with international NGO’s.
Strategy and Program
A conservation strategy for Gili was developed by considering groups of problem sources, the Park’s potential values, regulations, as well as environmental and socio-economic conditions of the surrounding communities. The strategies developed are:
* Promoting management activities for the Park and its resources.
* Assisting local communities to find other sources of income.
* Increasing the awareness of local community.
* Strengthening coordination among related institution and parties.
Each strategy is being detailed in action programs as the basis of management activities to be implemented. A five-year action plan was established in the form of a Five Year Plan that was described and detailed an annual plan. The annual plan is used to propose to the government to obtain budget for technical cooperation with other institutions.
Action programs formulated may vary from year to year. However, the basic program remains the same. The action programs implemented are shown as follows:
* Conservation planning:
o Annual plan preparation
o Proposed program activities plan preparation
* Monitoring and inventory:
o Coral reefs monitoring and inventory
o Database development and management
* Biodiversity management and safeguarding:
o Hawksbill turtle semi-natural hatching development
o Artificial reefs establishment
o Integrated operation
o Regular patrolling
* Data and information:
o Providing data on visitors, disturbances, and Park biodiversity
* Manpower management by training
* Facilities provision and maintenance:
o Provision of facilities and equipment
o Maintenance of facilities and equipment
* Assisting local community development:
o Providing demonstration plots of marine flora and fauna, managed by local community
* Promoting community awareness:
o Coordination meetings on planning and sustainable utilization
o Conservation education and extension
o Conservation exhibitions
o Information dissemination
The paper provides a brief overview of the present management status of the Gili Matra Marine Natural recreation Park.
Inputs based on experience from other marine parks will be adopted and integrated for better management at Gili. It is hoped that the experience of management from The Gili Matra Marine Natural Recreation Park may one day be useful for other marine protected areas.
With Thanks to Edi Djuharsa,
Natural Resources Conservation Office,
West Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia.
Breaking News, 26th January 2012
According to CI, as many as 100 sharks are captured and killed each day in the waters around Bali, primarily off the shore of Nusa Penida and Ahmed, near Karangasem.
Conservation International (CI) is urging the provincial government of Bali to outlaw the capture and harvesting of sharks, particularly long-tailed sharks for the harvesting of shark’s fins.
According to CI, as many as 100 sharks are captured and killed each day in the waters around Bali, primarily off the shore of Nusa Penida and Ahmed, near Karangasem.
Quoted by Beritabali.com, a researcher from CI Indonesia, Mark Van Erdman, said on November 11, 2011 that the large-scale slaughter of sharks threatens the sustainability of the shark population. This is of particular concern in Bali, which is considered a breeding area for this species.
Van Erdman pointed our how 100 sharks harvested each day can have a massive impact on the potential tens of thousands of shark that come to Bali to breed the next generation of these sharks.
The CI researcher contends that sharks have a much higher value as a sustainable object of tourism attraction that far outweighs amy commercial value obtained from killing the fish for their edible fins. Using the example of turtles to make his point, Van Erdman said how a turtle is estimated to have a “tourism” attraction value of US$179,000 during its lifetime, but if caught, slaughtered and sold will only fetch US$274 from the transaction.
Tourists can help preserve the shark population, seen as critical to the ocean’s food chain, by urging restaurants that sell sharks fins to seek other sources of income, and refusing to patronize such business if over time they continue to sell sharks fin.
Attributed to www.balidiscovery.com.
25 Jan 2008
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